You have probably heard this story by now:
But now researchers have discovered a bacterium that appears to have replaced that life-enabling phosphorus with its toxic cousin arsenic, raising new and provocative questions about the origins and nature of life.
News of the discovery caused a scientific commotion this week, including calls to NASA from the White House asking whether a second line of earthly life has been found.
Whether or not the bacteria actually replace phosphorus with arsenic is something that will eventually be sorted out. But for now, we can be confident that no “second line of earthly life has been found.”
“This is different from anything we’ve seen before,” said Mary Voytek, senior scientist for NASA’s program in astrobiology, the arm of the agency involved specifically in the search for life beyond Earth and for how life began here.
“These bugs haven’t just replaced one useful element with another; they have the arsenic in the basic building blocks of their makeup,” she said. “We don’t know if the arsenic replaced phosphorus or if it was there from the very beginning – in which case it would strongly suggest the existence of a shadow biosphere.”
Yes, we do know it wasn’t there from the beginning. How?